“Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet” (Luke 20:27-44)

Les pharisiens questionnent Jésus (The Pharisees question Jesus), James Tissot (France, 1886-1894)
Les pharisiens questionnent Jésus (The Pharisees question Jesus), James Tissot (France, 1886-1894)

Προσελθόντες δέ τινες τῶν Σαδδουκαίων, οἱ λέγοντες μὴ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν, ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸνλέγοντες· διδάσκαλε, Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν, ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ ἔχων γυναῖκα, καὶ οὗτος ἄτεκνος ἀποθάνῃ, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ.ἑπτὰ οὖν ἀδελφοὶ ἦσαν· καὶ ὁ πρῶτος λαβὼν γυναῖκα ἀπέθανεν ἄτεκνος·καὶ ἔλαβεν ὁ δεύτερος τὴν γυναῖκα, καὶ οὗτος ἀπέθανεν ἄτεκνος·καὶ ὁ τρίτος ἔλαβεν αὐτὴν ὡσαύτως· ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ οἱ ἑπτά· οὐ κατέλιπον τέκνα, καὶ ἀπέθανον·ὕστερον δὲ πάντων καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέθανεν.ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει οὖν τίνος αὐτῶν γίνεται γυνή; οἱ γὰρ ἑπτὰ ἔσχον αὐτὴν γυναῖκα.καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς· οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου γαμοῦσι καὶ ἐκγαμίζονται·οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται·οὔτε γὰρ ἀποθανεῖν ἔτι δύνανται· ἰσάγγελοι γάρ εἰσι καὶ υἱοί εἰσι τοῦ Θεοῦ, τῆς ἀναστάσεως υἱοὶ ὄντες.ὅτι δὲ ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροί, καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐμήνυσεν ἐπὶ τῆς βάτου, ὡς λέγει Κύριον τὸν Θεὸν ᾿Αβραὰμ καὶ τὸν Θεὸν ᾿Ισαὰκ καὶ τὸν Θεὸν ᾿Ιακώβ.Θεὸς δὲ οὐκ ἔστι νεκρῶν, ἀλλὰ ζώντων· πάντες γὰρ αὐτῷ ζῶσιν.ἀποκριθέντες δέ τινες τῶν γραμματέων εἶπον· διδάσκαλε, καλῶς εἶπας.οὐκέτι δὲ ἐτόλμων ἐπερωτᾶν αὐτὸν οὐδέν.

Εἶπε δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς· πῶς λέγουσι τὸν Χριστὸν υἱὸν Δαυῒδ εἶναι;καὶ αὐτὸς Δαυῒδ λέγει ἐν βίβλῳ τῶν ψαλμῶν·

εἶπεν ὁ Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου,
κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου

ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου
ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου.

Δαυῒδ οὖν αὐτὸν Κύριον καλεῖ· καὶ πῶς υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἐστιν;

Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who say there is no resurrection. They asked him, “Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man dies having a wife and he dies without children, his brother should take the wife and raise up a posterity for his brother.  There were therefore seven brothers: the first took a wife and died childless.  The second took her as wife, and he [also] died childless. The third took her, and likewise all seven [brothers] left no children and died. Afterwards, the woman also died. Therefore, in the resurrection, whose wife is she? For the seven had her as wife.” Jesus answered and said to them, The children of this age get married and are given in marriage. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and to the resurrection from the dead do not marry or are given in marriage. They cannot die any more, because they are like the angels, and they are children of God, being children of the resurrection. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed in the [story of the burning] bush, when he called the Lord ‘The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, because all are alive to him! Some of the scribes answered, “Teacher, you speak well!” After that, they did not dare to ask him any more questions.

Jesus asked them, Why do they say that the Christ is David’s son? David himself says in the book of Psalms,

The Lord said to my Lord,
Sit at my right hand,

Until I make your enemies
The footstool of your feet.

David therefore calls him Lord, so how is he his son?

 

Luke 20:27-44, Eastern Orthodox Bible New Testament

 


20:27-44

st-theophan-the-recluse-2

The Sadducees had a seemingly insoluble objection to the resurrection; but the Lord resolved it with a few words to them, and so clearly that everyone understood and acknowledged the Sadducees to have been beaten by the truth of His word. What the Sadducees were then, unbelievers of all sorts are now. They have heaped up a multitude of fanciful suppositions for themselves, elevated them to the status of irrefutable truths and plumed themselves on them, assuming that nothing can be said against them. In fact, they are so ungrounded that it is not even worthwhile speaking against them, All of their sophistry is a house of cards – blow on it and it flies apart.  There is no need to refute it in its parts; it is enough to regard it as one regards dreams. When speaking against dreams, people do not prove the absurdity in their composition or in their individual parts, but only say, “It’s a dream,” and with that they resolve everything. It is the same with the theory of the formation of the world from a nebula and its supports, with the theory of abiogenesis and Darwin’s origin of genera and species, and with his last dream about the descent of man. lt is all like delirium. When vou read them you are walking in the midst of shadows. And scientists? Well, what can you do with them? Their motto is “If you don’t like it, don’t listen, but don’t prevent me from lying.”

St. Theophan the Recluse (19th c.), Thoughts for Each Day of the Year


20:27-40

1231theofilact-ochrid0001

The Sadducees did not believe in the resurrection of the dead because their reasonings stood on a faulty and deceptive foundation which led them inevitably into error: they supposed that life in the resurrection would be fleshly. Therefore they slandered the doctrine of the resurrection as absurd by concocting this ridiculous scenario. The Lord first shakes their foundation by showing that there is no fleshly existence in the resurrection, and then immediately hurls down their teaching together with its faulty premise and supposition. saying. You are deluded, not knowing the Scriptures [Mt 2:29], and distorting their meaning. For the children of this age, begotten and begetting in this world. marry and are given in marriage.  But the children of the resurrection do nothing of the kind, for neither can they die any more: therefore. in that age there is no married life, but instead an angelic and divine life. Here, there is marriage because there is death, and there is death because there is marriage. There, where death has been abolished, what need is there of marriage? Marriage is for the help of mortals and for the replenishing of what is lacking [because of death]. But where nothing is lacking, what need is there for replenishing? Therefore they are equal unto the angels and are the children of God. Why? Because they are children of the resurrection. What He means is this: “I have said that they are the children of God because nothing in their begetting is carnal – all is divine. Their birth into resurrection is preceded by neither intercourse, nor seed, nor womb, nor conception; it is God Who begets their resurrected bodies by ways known only to Him. Therefore, since it is God Who is at work in the resurrection, it is fitting that those who have been reborn of the resurrection should be called the children of God.” To this reasoning the Lord adds the witness of Scripture.  Moses says that God spoke to him out of the burning bush, saying, I am the God of Abraham. and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob [Ex 3:6].  If the Patriarchs had altogether perished and no longer lived with God in the hope of the resurrection, God would not have said, I am the God of Abraham, but “I was the God of Abraham.” For this is how we speak of things that have corrupted and perished: “I was the owner of such and such a thing.”  But here, by saying I am, He shows that He is Master and God of the living, and not of things that have completely corrupted.  Though the Patriarchs are dead, they are alive in the hope of the resurrection, even as Adam had death even while he lived.   For it is said that Adam died [spiritually and began to die physically] at the very hour at which he ate of the fruit.” When the Sadducees had thus been put to shame, the scribes applauded Jesus as an adversary of the Sadducees and took pleasure in their defeat.

Blessed Theophylact of Ochrid (11th c.), The Explanation of the Holy Gospel According to St. Luke

 


20:28

λέγοντες· διδάσκαλε, Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν, ἐάν τινος δελφὸς  ποθάνῃ ἔχων γυναῖκα, καὶ οὗτος ἄτεκνος  ποθάνῃ, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ  δελφὸςαὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ  δελφῷ αὐτοῦ.

They asked him, “Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man dies having a wife and he dies without children, his brother should take the wife and raise up a posterity for his brother.

 

And Judah said to Onan, Go in to your brother’s wife, and marry her as her brother-in-law, and raise up seed to your brother [Genesis 38:8 LXX].

And if brethren should live together, and one of them should die, and should not have seed, the wife of the deceased shall not marry out of the family to a man not related: her husband’s brother shall go in to her, and shall take her to himself as his wife, and shall dwell with her [Deuteronomy 25:5 LXX].

 


20:27-40

1207ambrose-milan0010

The woman of Samaria had five husbands [Jn 4:18], because the Samaritan follows only the five books of Moses. But the Synagogue, of which this woman is a type, follows seven in principle; and because of its unbelief, it did not receive the seed of hereditary offspring

St. Ambrose of Milan (4th c.), Exposition of the Holy Gospel According to St. Luke

 


20:41-44

1231theofilact-ochrid0001

Because He is shortly to go to His Passion, He now proclaims His divinity; but He does not do so openly and brazenly, but in a most humble fashion. He asks them a question, first causing them to be perplexed and then allowing them to figure out for themselves the consequences of the answer. For David, He says, calleth Him Lord; how then is He merely his son? Christ was the son of David according to the flesh, but He is also David’s God. But the scribes thought that Christ was only David’s son.  Therefore He first refutes their opinion that Christ is merely the son of David, and then He reveals that He is in no way opposed to the Father; on the contrary, He has such oneness of mind with Him, that the Father makes war against Christ’s enemies. This much He addresses to the scribes, and then He turns to His disciples.

Blessed Theophylact of Ochrid

 


20:42

 

1231theofilact-ochrid0001

Because He is shortly to go to His Passion, He now proclaims His divinity; but He does not do so openly and brazenly, but in a most humble fashion. He asks them a question, first causing them to be perplexed and then allowing them to figure out for themselves the consequences of the answer. For David, He says, calleth Him Lord; how then is He merely his son? Christ was the son of David according to the flesh, but He is also David’s God. But the scribes thought that Christ was only David’s son.  Therefore He first refutes their opinion that Christ is merely the son of David, and then He reveals that He is in no way opposed to the Father; on the contrary, He has such oneness of mind with Him, that the Father makes war against Christ’s enemies. This much He addresses to the scribes, and then He turns to His disciples.

Blessed Theophylact of Ochrid

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s